- Appeals — Burden and standard of proof — Judicial remedies
This chapter examines issues of burden and standard of proof that arise in competition proceedings. It first provides an overview of relevant terminology such as burden, legal burden, evidential burden, and standard of proof before discussing the burden of proof, presumption, and standard of proof with regard to civil claims and criminal cases. It also considers the burden of proof, standard of proof, and presumption of innocence in appeals made to the Competition Appeal Tribunal (CAT) against infringement decisions. In particular, it explains the criminal nature of the appeal proceedings and shows that the legal burden of proving the infringement remains on the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA). The CAT decisions in Napp Pharmaceutical Holdings v DGFT, Claymore Dairies v OFT, and Flynn Pharma Ltd & Pfizer CMA with respect to standard of proof and presumption of innocence are cited.
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