- De minimis — Concerted practices — Object or effect — Restriction of competition — Undertakings
This chapter discusses Article 101(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), which prohibits agreements, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices that restrict competition. It begins by explaining the terms ‘undertakings’ and ‘associations of undertakings’. It then considers what is meant by the terms ‘agreements’, ‘decisions’ and ‘concerted practices’, as well as what is meant by the phrase ‘prevention, restriction and distortion of competition’ that serves as the purpose of the provision. The chapter then deals with the de minimis doctrine, before explaining the requirement of an effect on trade between Member States. The chapter concludes with a checklist of agreements that, for a variety of reasons, normally fall outside Article 101(1).